Culinary Herbs

 Common Name  Latin Name  Uses, Comments
angelica Angelica archangelica (Leaves, Roots, Seeds) Leaves have light celery flavor; young flowering stalks have a mildly sweet licorice-like flavor; tender leaves and shoots used in salads; stems candied to decorate cakes and puddings (Biennial)
anise hyssop Agastache foeniculum (Flowers, Leaves) Gives a hint of licorice and mint flavor; add the leaves to lamb or pork dishes;  leaves and flowers are sometimes used to flavor and garnish salads, sugar, baked goods, and honey (Perennial)
bachelor’s button Centaurea cyanus (Flowers) Mild cucumber flavor; petals are used fresh or dried; used as a garnish to add color to dishes like soups, stews, and salads; also used to beautify desserts; can be used to naturally color sugar, icings, and syrups (Annual)
basil Ocimum basilicum (Leaves) Peppery flavor; fresh leaves are most pungent, used in pesto sauces; goes well with most types of meats, including chicken, lamb, and pork; popular in Italian dishes (Annual)
bay laurel Laurus nobilis (Leaves) Flavor is reminiscent of oregano or thyme, but a bit more floral; used in meat, fish, and poultry dishes; popular in French cuisine (Annual)
bee balm Monarda didyma (Flowers, Leaves) Light citrus flavor; leaves used to stuff pork, flower petals can be scattered over salads (Perennial)
borage Borago officinalis (Flowers, Leaves) Cucumber flavor; leaves can be added to salads or vegetable dishes; can be made into syrup or candied; edible flowers can be added to salads (Annual)
bronze fennel Foeniculum vulgare ‘Purpureum’ (Leaves, Seeds) Licorice-like flavor; seeds used to flavor sausage; leaves add flavor to salads or vegetables (Annual)
chives Allium schoenoprasum (Flowers, Leaves) Adds mild onion flavor; good on salads, sauces, soups, and spreads; flowers garnish salads and soups (Perennial)
cilantro/coriander Coriandrum sativum (Leaves, Seeds) The pungent leaves are called cilantro, has a citrus flavor, compliments many dishes including chicken and fish; popular in Chinese, Mediterranean, and Mexican dishes; the aromatic seeds are called coriander, a well-known seasoning, ideal for pickling and adding to meat rubs (Annual)
collard greens Brassica oleracea (Leaves, Stems) Earthy and slightly bitter flavor; popular in soups, salads, and stews; staple side dish in southern cooking (Annual)
common sage Salvia officinalis (Leaves) Earthy flavor; popular seasoning in stuffing, sausage, and duck dishes; cheese and egg dishes; other types are golden sage, purple sage, tricolor sage (Annual, Perennial)
costmary Tanacetum balsamita (Leaves) Minty, eucalyptus-like flavor; leaves added to soups, salads, stuffing, and cakes (Perennial)
celery Apium graveolens (Leaves, Stems) Pungent and spicy flavor; substitute leaves and stems for stock celery in dishes; gives more flavor to soups and stews (Annual)
dill Anethum graveolens (Leaves, Seeds) Anise, citrus-like flavor; many great uses especially to season seafood and poultry, ingredient for pickling (Annual)
elderberry Sambucus canadensis (Fruits) Sweet, tart taste with earthy undertones; used in jams, jellies, syrups, and preserves; do not eat berries raw, must be cooked (Perennial)
fennel Foeniculum vulgare (Bulbs, Leaves) Licorice-like flavor; bulbs grow above ground and can be steamed, grilled or eaten raw like celery; leaves used in salads and sauces and on eggs and fish (Annual)
fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum (Leaves, Seeds) Bitter maple syrup-like flavor; leaves can be used to finish dishes like sauces, curries, vegetable dishes, and soups; seeds can be used whole or ground; used in spice blends such as garam masala, panch phoran (Indian five-spice), or dry rubs for meat (Annual)
fig Ficus carica (Fruits) Sweet fruits used in cooking; fresh and dried figs can be used as nutritious snacks and in foods and desserts; source of calcium, fiber, antioxidants (Perennial)
French sorrel Rumex scutatus (Leaves) Slightly bitter or tangy flavor, spiced with a hint of lemon; can be eaten raw or cooked; the sharp flavor is due to oxalic acid; used in soups, stews, salads and sauces (Perennial)
French tarragon Artemisia dracunculus sativa (Leaves) Licorice-like flavor; used for seasoning poultry, fish, eggs, vegetables, salads, and tomato dishes; Popular in French cuisine (Perennial)
garlic Allium sativum (Cloves) Pungent flavor; used all over the world to flavor many dishes (Perennial)
garlic chives Allium tuberosum (Rhizomes) Warm, spicy flavor that is sometimes described as peppery; used in sweet and savory dishes; staple of Asian and Indian cooking (Annual)
ginger Zingiber
officinale
Edible flowers used in salads; historically used to dye cheese (A)
hops Humulus lupulus (Flowers, Young Shoots) Asparagus-like flavor; blanched young stems used in soups, salads or served as hot greens; parboil male flowers and add to salads (Perennial)
horseradish Armoracia rusticana (Roots) Spicy and pungent flavor; used in sauces, dressings, sandwich spreads and other condiments (Perennial)
kale Brassica oleracea (Leaves, Stems) Bitter earthy flavor; commonly eaten fresh or sautéed in salads, soups and stews; often labeled a superfood for its health benefits (Annual)
lavender Lavandula angustifolia (Flowers, Leaves, Stems) Floral flavor; Use flowers to flavor sugar and milk for baked goods; add to your favorite sugar cookie recipe; substitute leaves for rosemary in stews and stuffing (Perennial)
lemon balm Melissa officinalis (Leaves) Lemon flavor; leaves add flavor to salads, vegetables, fish and chicken dishes, and a variety of condiments; used in place of lemon peels in recipes (Perennial)
lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus (Leaves) Lemony flavor; leafy bases of mature stems are stewed or steamed with food; used fresh or dried to flavor curries, stir-fries, pickles, soups, stews and salads; the lemony flavor is a staple in Oriental cooking (Annual)
licorice Glycyrrhiza glabra (Rhizomes) Bitter-sweet flavor; used in cough lozenges, syrups, and elixirs; used to flavor candies, tobacco and baked goods (Perennial)
lovage Levisticum officinale (Leaves, Seeds, Stems) Celery flavor; used as celery substitute; good addition to salads, soups, stews, stocks and casseroles; use stems as straws for Bloody Marys (Perennial)
meadowsweet Filipendula ulmaria (Flowers, Leaves) Cucumber flavor; used to flavor jams and stews (Perennial)
Mexican coriander Eryngium foetidum (Leaves) Bitter, flavor similar to cilantro, but stronger; use in place of cilantro; commonly added to beans, stews and rice preparations (Annual)
Mexican mint marigold Tagetes lucida (Flowers, Leaves) Sweet anise flavor; add fresh leaves to chicken and fish dishes, soups and summer salads; petals can be sprinkled on salads or soups; used to flavor simple syrups and vinegar (Annual)
Mexican oregano Lippia graveolens (Leaves) Similar to oregano, but with a more robust, pungent flavor; used in Mexican dishes in place of oregano (Annual)
mint Mentha spp. (Leaves) Sweet, cooling flavor; complements lamb and poultry dishes; used in salads, side dishes, and sauces; it works well in sweet and savory dishes;  it is widely used in Middle Eastern and Greek dishes (Perennial)
oregano Origanum vulgare (Leaves) Peppery flavor with a slightly bitter taste;  pairs well with meats, tomatoes and eggs; common in Italian, Greek, and Spanish dishes (Perennial)
parsley Petroselinum crispum (Leaves) Fresh, slight peppery flavor; versatile herb used in many flavorings; garnish; single or curled-leaf varieties; rich in vitamins, iron, and calcium (Annual)
passion fruit Passiflora edulis (Fruits) Tart flavor; juice, pulp, and nectar can be eaten fresh; added to sauces, salads, baked goods, yogurt, and desserts (Annual)
pot marigold Calendula officinalis (Flowers) Slight bitter flavor; edible flowers used in soups; add to egg dishes, such as quiche; sprinkle the fresh petals on salads; add to salsa for a little extra flavor (Annual)
rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis (Leaves) Lemon-pine flavor; aromatic leaves used as a seasoning in a soups, casseroles, salads, and stews; good for seasoning poultry, lamb, pork, steaks, and fish (Annual)
Russian tarragon Artemisia dracunculus (Leaves) Grassy flavor; used as a substitute for other tarragons; less flavorful than French tarragon (Annual)
safflower Carthamus tinctorius (Flowers, Seeds) Mild chocolate and tobacco flavor; petals are used as a spice and as food coloring; seeds are used to make oil for cooking; popular substitute for saffron (Perennial)
saffron crocus Crocus sativus (Flowers) Sweet floral flavor; it is the stigma from a crocus flower; popular in seafood and rice dishes; most expensive spice in the world (Annual)
summer savory Satureja hortensis (Leaves) Peppery flavor; commonly used with beans, vegetables, pork, lamb, stuffing, and sauces (Annual)
sweet cicely Myrrhis odorata (Leaves, Seeds, Stems, Roots) Light anise flavor; leaves used in salads and egg dishes; fresh seeds can be used in ice cream and fruit salads; dried seeds can be used in desserts; roots can be grated or cooked as a vegetable; stems can be cooked (Perennial)
sweet marjoram Origanum majorana (Leaves) Similar flavor to oregano; popular addition to salad dressings, meat dishes, and preserved meats such as German sausage (Annual)
thyme Thymus spp. (Leaves) Earthy, woodsy taste, with notes of citrus and mint; major culinary herb; leaves used fresh or dried; used to flavor meat, fish, soups, stocks, sauces, bread, and vegetable dishes; also T. citriodorus has lemon scented leaves, used in tea (Perennial)
turmeric Curcuma longa (Rhizomes) Flavor resembles a combination of ginger and pepper; used to flavor curries, mustards and soups; used in chicken and vegetable dishes  (Annual)
pansy Viola spp. (Flowers) Mild mint grassy flavor; used as garnishes, in fruit salads, green salad, desserts or in soups (Annual)
wild carrot Daucus carota (Flowers, Leaves, Roots, Seeds) Mild carrot flavor; flower clusters can be fried to produce a carrot flavored gourmet’s delight or made into jelly; young leaves can be eaten in a green salad or used in soups; roots can be cooked and used in soups and stews; dried roasted roots are ground into a powder and are used for making coffee; seeds are used as a flavoring in stews (Biennial)
winter savory Satureja montana (Leaves) Somewhat peppery flavor; used in bean and meat dishes; used in soups and sauces (Perennial)